Glossary

A

Accessibility Features
The settings and tools available within the Student Testing Site that provide support for students with disabilities, such as features that allow students to change the color contrast or font size of an online test.
Accommodations (Non-standard)
Any modifications provided for a student's testing experience that affect the construct of the test, which is the general skill that the test is intended to assess. For example, in a test intended to assess writing skills, an accommodation that transcribes a student's speech would change the test construct and be considered a non-standard accommodation.
Accommodations Standard
Test modifications that are in use in most online assessment programs and that do not change the construct of the test, which is the general skill that the test is intended to assess. For example, the zoom tools available in the Student Testing Site do not change the construct of a test intended to assess writing skills, so they are considered a standard accommodation.
Achievement Level
Five categories of achievement that represent the success students demonstrate with content assessed on the FSA and/or NGSSS assessments. Achievement Levels are established using the input of classroom teachers, curriculum specialists, education administrators, and other interested citizens. These professionals helped the Florida Department of Education identify the score ranges for each Achievement Level. The Achievement Levels are helpful in interpreting what a student’s scale score represents.
Aggregation
The compilation of test result data in a report that provides average scores for a group of students, such as the students in a roster or school.
Alignment
The association between an item on a test and a content standard that identifies which skill or knowledge area that item is intended to measure.
Anchor Items
Items that have appeared on a given test in previous years and are used to ensure that the scores on the test can be equated or made comparable from year to year.
Annual Assessment Window
A designated time period each school year during which schools administer tests to students.
APM
Adaptive Progress Monitoring
Appeal
A request to resolve a test impropriety (also known as a testing incident), which may interrupt the normal workflow of a test opportunity. Appeals are created and processed in TIDE.
Assessment
An online or paper test consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as a test.
Assessment Reports
Reports available in the Reporting system that provide detailed student performance data for an individual test taken by an individual student or group of students.
Assessment Viewing Application (AVA)
A CAI application within the Test Delivery System (TDS) that allows test administrators to administer listening portions of ELA Reading assessments to students with certain accommodations.
Assistive Technology
Any hardware or software that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability.
Authoring
A CAI system that allows educators to create original, standard-aligned items and add them to tests, which can be published to the Test Delivery System (TDS) for administration to students.
AVA
Assessment Viewing Application

C

CAI
Cambium Assessment, Inc.
Cambium Assessment, Inc. (CAI)
An education company devoted to student assessment. Owned by Cambium Learning Group.
Chrome OS
An operating system developed and distributed by Google, which is supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Class Code
A code assigned to a student in TIDE. Students' class codes can be edited either individually or by uploading a student information file.
Cluster (Content Cluster)
A grouping of related benchmarks from the FSA and NGSSS, clusters are currently used to summarize and report achievement for assessments.
Cognitive Complexity
System used to classify items according to the complexity of the steps and processes they require students to use.
Cohort
A group of students who have something in common, such as their class membership. In test reports, cohorts are commonly used to aggregate data for a group of students and measure their performance in an individual test or over time.
Column Match
An item type that requires students to respond by matching together answer options that are listed in a set of columns.
Comma-Separated Values
A type of file in which data are separated by commas. Some CAI systems allow users to create or modify data in bulk by uploading a CSV file.
Complexity
The level of cognitive demand expected for a student to correctly answer a test item.
Condition Code
A code applied in place of a score on an assessment report when a student's response to a test item cannot be scored.
Construct
The set of concepts or skills that a test is intended to measure, such as reading ability or writing ability.
Constructed Response
An item type that requires student to respond with a written, pictorial, or graphic answer.
Content
Used to refer to the items and stimuli within a test, the reading passage or other media type within a stimulus, and the prompt and response area within an item.
Content Area
The information or skills contained in an area of study. The content areas (or subject areas) assessed are writing, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies.
Content Standard
The skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Context Menu Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear inside a menu and are available for individual items and stimuli.
Cut Point Scores
Scale scores that mark the boundaries between different achievement levels.

D

DAC
District Assessment Coordinator
Data Recognition Corporation
Data Recognition Corporation (DRC) is the vendor responsible for processes associated with paper-based FSA materials including printing, shipping, receiving, and scanning.
Depth of Knowledge
System used to classify items according to the complexity of the steps and processes they require students to use.
Device
Hardware that students may use in daily classroom instruction and to take tests, including, but not limited to, desktop computers, laptops, netbooks, tablets and assistive technologies for students requiring accommodations.
Dimension
A type of scoring criterion in an item's rubric.
Disaggregation
The process by which performance data for a group of students, such as a roster or school, is broken down into data for the various sub-groups or demographic groups within that larger student group.
District Administrator
A CAI system user role representing an administrator for an entire district who has access to reporting information for the district.
District Assessment Coordinator (DAC)
A CAI system user role representing an assessment coordinator for an entire district.
Domain
A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
Drag-and-Drop Grid Item
Items with a bank of words, phrases, objects, or sentences that may be dragged into a response area.
DRC
Data Recognition Corporation

E

Edit Task (ET)
An item type that requires students to respond by editing words or phrases in a sentence.
Editing Task Choice
Items with a highlighted word or phrase, which reveals a drop-down menu containing options for correcting an error as well as the highlighted word of phrase as it is showing in the sentence to indicate that no correction is needed.
ELA
English Language Arts
Eligibility Rules
Student attributes set up in TIDE that determine which tests a student will be able to take in TDS.
Embedded Support
Built-in tools and settings in the Student Testing Site that provide assistance in using the application to students testing with the appropriate accommodations.
English Language Learner
A student whose native language is not English and who is learning to speak, read, write, and understand the English language.
Equation Editor
Available in Mathematics only, an item in which a student is presented with a toolbar that includes a variety of mathematical symbols that can be used to create a response.
Errors of Measurement
Typically referred to as standard error of measurement. The amount or difference between a student’s actual score and the theoretical true score. The degree of inherent imprecision in student performance reports based on test content, administration, scoring, or examinee conditions.
Evidence-Based Selected Response
Two-part item in which a student is directed to select the correct answers from Part A and Part B.
Exceptional Student Education
Special educational services that are provided to eligible students (e.g., visually impaired, hearing impaired). These services are required by federal law and provided to Florida students according to State Board of Education Rule 6A-6.0331, F.A.C.
Exemplar
An element included in an item's scoring rubric that provides an example of a student response that would earn a certain number of points.
Extended Constructed Response (ECR)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a longer text response, such as an essay.

F

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
A federal law that protects students' privacy regarding education records and also provides parents with rights regarding their children's education records.
Family Portal
A CAI system that provides student performance reports for parents and guardians.
Fedora
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Field-Test Item
Items included in an assessment for item development purposes only. Student response data are reviewed to determine whether a field-test item would be a useful operational item. Field-test items do not count toward student scores.
Firewall
A network security system that monitors traffic and prevents unauthorized access to the network.
FLEID
Florida Education Identifier
Florida Education Identifier
A 14-character code issued by FDOE to uniquely identify a student in Florida's education data system.
Florida Standards Assessments
Statewide assessments that measure whether students have made progress on the English Language Arts (ELA) Florida Standards and the Mathematics Florida Standards.
Force Quit
An action that test administrators may need to take to close the Secure Browser in the event that it becomes unresponsive.
Form
A compilation of test items and/or stimuli that make up the segments of an assessment. Also known as a test form.
FSA
Florida Standards Assessments

G

Global Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear at the top of the screen and are available for an entire test segment.
Grade Level
The grade in which a student is enrolled.
Graph Item
An item type that requires students to respond by adjusting the heights or lengths of bars in a graph.
Grid Item
A type of item interaction that can offer several different ways for the student to interact with a grid area, such as dragging an object onto the grid canvas or plotting points on a graph.
Gridded Response
Test items that require students to solve a problem for which the answer is numerical. Answers must be written and gridded into a number grid. The gridded-response item format is used in FSA Mathematics.

H

Hand Scoring
The process of manually scoring test items.
Hot Spot
An item type that requires students to respond by clicking regions on an image, such as countries on a map.
Hot Text
An item type that requires students to click words or phrases in a section of text.

I

Image Drag and Drop
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging text or image elements onto a background image.
Individual Education Plan
Describes special education services provided as part of Exceptional Student Education. Also specifies the testing accommodations a student needs for classroom instruction and assessments.
Individual Student Report
A report that provides detailed information about an individual student's performance on an individual test.
Interaction
A component of a test item that students can interact with, such as a list of options they can select from or a text box in which they type a response. A test item may include one or more individual interactions.
iOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
iPadOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
Item
Any test question or task for which a separate score is awarded.
Item Bank
Database of field-test or operational items. Items are selected from it each year to construct the FSA and NGSSS assessments.

K

Keyboard Command
A key or combination of keys students can press in order to perform an action in the Student Testing Site.
Kiosk Mode
A feature available in certain operating systems in which a device allows access only to a specific application, such as CAI's Secure Browser.

L

Linux
A family of free and open source operating systems, some of which are supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Local Area Network
A network that connects a group of computers that are in the same location.
Longitudinal Report
A type of report available in the Reporting system that shows a comparison of assessment results for a particular student or group of students at two or more points in time.

M

Machine Scoring
Item scoring performed automatically by a computer.
Matching Item
An item type that requires students to respond by matching answer options together.
Mobile Secure Browser
The mobile version of CAI's Secure Browser. It is used on iPads (iPadOS and iOS) and Chromebooks.
Multimedia
Available in ELA only, an item in which technology-enhanced content may include multimedia elements such as audio clips, slideshows, or animations.
Multiple Choice Item
Items that present students with several options from which to choose one response.
Multiselect
Item in which a student is directed to select a specific number of or all of the correct answer from among the options provided.

N

Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics
A Braille code for encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly.
Next Generation Sunshine State Standards
Assessments which measure student achievement of the benchmarks of the NGSSS Science Standards and the NGSSS Social Studies Standards.
NGSSS
Next Generation Sunshine State Standards

O

Open Response
Item in which a student uses the keyboard to enter a response into a text field.
Operational
In student testing, this term refers to live testing, as distinct from practice testing. An operational assessment is one that is developed and administered at a specified time and whose scoring results are used for the purpose of meeting local, state, and/or federal requirements.
Operational Item
An item that counts toward a student’s score.
Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Options
The response choices to an item's stem from which students select an answer.
Out-of-Level Testing
The administration of a test at a level above a student’s present grade level to enable the student to be assessed at the level of instruction rather than the level of enrollment.

P

Pearson
Pearson is the vendor responsible for processes associated with paper-based NGSSS materials including printing, shipping, receiving, and scanning.
PearsonAccess Next Reporting System
Florida Statewide Assessment results for FSA and NGSSS are reported using the PearsonAccess Next Reporting System.
Performance Tasks
Items that require students to provide either a short or extended written response.
Personally Identifying Information
Information that could identify an individual person, such as a student's name and date of birth.
Portal
Resources and information for students, parents, members of the public, and district and school personnel.
PreID Label
A preidentification label affixed to a student’s testing materials to associate the test with the student.
PreID Roster
A type of roster that is implicitly created based on the class codes assigned to students in TIDE. When a student's class code is edited, their PreID roster membership is automatically changed as well.
Prompt
The topic a student is given to provide a response to for FSA ELA Writing

R

Reading Passages
There are two types of reading passages: informational and literary.
Reliability
Desired characteristic of a test. Achieved when measurement error is minimized and the test score is close to the true score.
Remote Administration
A Test Delivery System (TDS) feature that allows test administrators to proctor online tests remotely when students are unable to take a test in the same physical location as the administrator. This feature is only available for Adaptive Progress Monitoring (APM).
Reporting Category
A topic or skill area within a test. In the Reporting system, some reports may allow users to view performance data by reporting category.
Retake
Alternate assessment given to those who do not achieve the passing score required for high school graduation. Retake tests are available for FSA Grade 10 ELA and FSA Algebra 1 EOC.
Roster
A group of students associated with an educator. Rosters typically represent classes, but may also represent other groups, such as students who have taken honors courses.
Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.

S

SAC
School Assessment Coordinator
Scale Score
Score used to report student results for the entire test. The scale score is the result of IRT processing and equating.
School Administrator
A CAI system user role that may have access to assessment results at a school.
School Assessment Coordinator
A CAI system user role representing a test coordinator for an individual school.
School Year
The academic year, given as a range (for example, 2020 to 2021).
Scoring Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.
Screensaver Mode
A feature in the TA Site that allows test administrators to temporarily hide any sensitive student data that appears on screen.
Section 504 Plan
A plan for how the school will provide support and changes to the learning environment to enable students to learn alongside their peers.
Secure Browser
The CAI browser through which all operational tests are administered. The Secure Browser provides a secure and user-friendly environment for students to complete tests while preventing access to any prohibited tools or applications.
Secure Inbox
The secure inbox shared across multiple CAI systems. It stores files that were exported from those systems.
Secure Materials Tracking Report
Report available in the After Testing section in TIDE that summarizes the return status of secure FSA materials as they are received at DRC.
Secure Student Identifier
A unique number or alphanumeric code assigned to a student for identification purposes.
Selectable Hot Text
Item type with highlighted words, phrases, or sentences in which a student can click to select an answer. These items may have one or two parts.
Session ID
A unique code generated by the Test Administrator (TA) Interface. In addition to their first names and usernames, students use the Session ID to log in to computer-based FSA assessments. Test administrators must record the Session ID with their required administration information.
Single Sign-On
A shared component in CAI systems that allows users to use a single set of login credentials to access every CAI system.
Skill Area
A reporting category or topic by which items are organized in a test based on related standards measured.
Speech-to-Text
An embedded support available in the Student Testing Site that transcribes a student's speech and enters it into a text box.
Standard
The specific skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Standard Setting
Process in which the Department seeks input from educators, school districts, and business and community leaders to determine the proposed Achievement Level standards for the new statewide assessments.
Stem
The question or prompt in a test item to which the students must respond.
Stimulus
A reading passage or multimedia resource in a test that students must review in order to respond to a set of associated items.
Strand
The broad divisions of content areas. For example, in the FSA ELA standards, there are seven strands: Reading, Writing, Listening, Viewing, Speaking, Language, and Literature.
Student Data File
A spreadsheet file that lists comprehensive test result data for a custom combination of tests and students, which users can generate and export in the Reporting system.
Student Testing Site
The component of the Test Delivery System (TDS) where students can take tests. Both practice and operational Student Testing Sites are available. The operational site is also known as the Secure Browser.

T

TA
Test Administrator
Table Item
In Mathematics only, an item type in which a student types numerical values into a given table.
Table Match
This item type presents options in columns and rows. Options may include numerical values, words, phrases, sentences, quotations, line/paragraph/passage numbers, or images.
Take a Test
A Microsoft application that allows students to take a test securely in Windows. The Take a Test app may be used as an alternative to the CAI Secure Browser.
TDS
Test Delivery System
Technology-Enhanced Item
Technology-enhanced items are computer-delivered items that require students to interact with test content to select, construct, and/or support their answers.
Test
An online or paper form consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as an assessment.
Test Administration Certification Course
A certification course offered to potential test administrators in order to prepare them for use of CAI's Test Delivery System.
Test Administrator
A CAI system user role for an educator who may administer test sessions in TDS.
Test Administrator Interface (TA Interface)
Test administrators use the TA Interface to create and monitor test sessions for all computer-based FSA and NGSSS assessments.
Test Completion Rate Report
A report available in TIDE that summarizes the number of students who have started or completed a test.
Test Delivery System
All computer-based FSA and NGSSS assessments are administered via TDS, which includes the TA Interface and the secure browser.
Test Form
A unique set of items consisting of core operational items and a smaller number of either field-test or anchor items. Students with different test forms encounter the same operational items, but different field-test or anchor items.
Test Group Code
A four-digit code used during paper-based administrations to identify groups of students tested together. This code is recorded on the front of the test and answer books and in the test administrator's required administration information.
Test Information and Distribution Engine
TIDE is the enrollment and user management system for FSA and NGSSS assessments. Student enrollment and test eligibility information is managed in TIDE. All school and district personnel involved in the administration of FSA and NGSSS assessments must have TIDE user accounts.
Test Materials Status Report
Report available in the After Testing section in TIDE that summarizes the return status of secure NGSSS materials received at Pearson.
Test Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Test Reason
A category assigned to a test opportunity, which is used to categorize the test for reporting purposes. Test reasons can be assigned to test opportunities in TDS or the Reporting system. Only for APM assessments.
Test Reason Manager
A feature in the Reporting system that allows users to set and modify the test reasons assigned to test opportunities.
Test Segment
A section of a test. Tests may be divided into multiple segments based on the skills measured, types of tasks, and/or tools available in that section.
Test Session
An event created by test administrators in the TA Site in which they select one or more tests and approve students to take those tests in the Student Testing Site.
Test Status Report
Details the status of all tests for the subjects selected.
Test Tickets
Student test tickets contain login information for students. Each student must have a test ticket to log in to computer-based FSA and NGSSS assessments. Test tickets are generated in TIDE and contain the following student information: district, school, last name, first name, date of birth, username, enrolled grade, and ID (FLEID).
Test Timeout
When a student's test pauses automatically after a certain period of inactivity.
Test Window
The date range in which a particular test is available for administration to eligible students.
Testing Irregularities
Possible examples of testing irregularities include testing that is interrupted for an extended period of time due to a local technical malfunction or severe weather, a student copying another student's answers, or a test administrator changing students' answers. If an irregularity is found in the data, flagged student records are put on hold and FDOE staff review the data.
Text Drag and Drop
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging text elements into the blank spaces within a sentence or paragraph.
Text-to-Speech
An embedded support available in the Student Testing Site that reads aloud text content within a test.
TIDE
Test Information Distribution Engine
TTS
Text-to-Speech
Tutorial
A tool within the Student Testing Site that plays a video demonstrating how students interact with a particular item type.

U

Ubuntu
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Uncontracted Braille
A version of Braille that uses cells of dots to represent individual letters, numbers, and symbols.
Universal Design
The application of these principles helps develop assessments that are usable to the greatest number of test takers, including students with disabilities and nonnative speakers of English. Universal design principles also inform decisions about test layout and design, including, but not limited to, type size, line length, spacing, and graphics.
User
An educator who is able to access and use a CAI system. Accounts for users can be created in TIDE.
User Role
In CAI systems, a role associated with a user's email address that determines which systems they may access and which permissions they have within that system.

V

Validity
Desired characteristic of a test. Achieved when the test actually measures what it is intended to measure.
Voice Pack
A software tool for emulating speech. Voice packs must be present in testing devices for any students who will use text-to-speech (TTS).

W

Writing Samples
Writing samples may be draft stories, reports, or articles that contain some mistakes. FSA Writing items based on writing samples ask about the strengths and weaknesses of the sample.